Building the Future of Energy


1366 Technologies provides customers with high-performance silicon wafers that both leverage their existing billion-dollar cell and module investments and enable a long-term, differentiated product roadmap. We believe that our technology has immense potential to change the world’s ability to access solar, and our vision for the future is one where solar energy displaces coal as the cheapest fuel source on the planet. We are convinced that this will happen before the end of the decade. 1366 Technologies will play an important role in getting us there.

Corporation Timeline

In just six years, 1366 has moved from proof of concept to commercial-ready technology,
achieving technical milestones steadily and rapidly.


1366 is founded and raises its Series A financing.


The team develops a proof of concept of the Direct Wafer process and is named an ARPA-E awardee.


1366 closes its Series B financing.


The team builds its first full-scale furnace and produces industry standard-size 156mm wafers.


1366 opens its demonstration factory and achieves 17% average cell efficiencies. The team also secures Series C financing.


The team reaches 18% cell efficiency


The 1366 team installs a manufacturing hub consisting of three, production-ready machines and achieves 19.1% cell efficiency with partner Hanwha Q CELLS. 1366 also announces it will buid its first commercial scale factory in New York State.


1366 announces Hanwha Q CELLS will purchase 700 MW of wafers. The team also extends its Series C financing with a $10M investment from Hanwha Investment Corporation and a $15M investment from Wacker Chemie.

Demonstration Systems on Three Continents

A 192 module array on the GE campus in Schenectady, New York, features panels made with 1366's Direct Wafer® products.
A 192 module array on the GE campus in Schenectady, New York, features panels made with 1366's Direct Wafer® products.

The appeal of the Direct Wafer® process extends downstream, where customers seek advanced, high-quality systems with lower technology costs. Our highly efficient manufacturing process enables 30% faster energy payback for the modules and uses safe, earth abundant raw materials appropriate for addressing the world’s energy needs at a terawatt scale.

The Story Behind Our Name


The “1366” in 1366 Technologies refers to the solar constant or the amount of the sun’s energy that hits the earth’s atmosphere per square meter. It’s an impressive number and a constant reminder that the sun over our heads reliably provides all of the energy our planet currently needs.

Board of Directors


Carmichael Roberts

Carmichael Roberts is a General Partner at North Bridge Venture Partners and the chairman of the board of 1366 Technologies Inc.

Prior to joining North Bridge, Carmichael co-founded and ran several companies based predominantly on innovative materials technologies.

Prior to his entrepreneurial career, Carmichael worked in business development at GelTex Pharmaceuticals, Inc., which was acquired by Genzyme for $1.3 billion.

Prior to GelTex, Carmichael was responsible for new product and business development in the Sentry Products Specialty Materials Division of Union Carbide Corporation.

Carmichael is mainly interested in companies that make products using chemistry, materials science and/or materials engineering. He primarily focuses on very early stage ventures, including helping founders launch companies from initial formation as he did with 1366.

Carmichael received his B.S. and Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Duke University and completed his postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard University. He also received his M.B.A. from the MIT Sloan School of Management.


Bob Metcalfe

Dr. Robert “Bob” Metcalfe is Professor of Innovation and Murchison Fellow of Free Enterprise in The University of Texas at Austin’s Cockrell School of Engineering. Dr. Metcalfe was an Internet pioneer at MIT starting in 1970 and in 1973 received his PhD from Harvard for Packet Communication. He invented Ethernet in 1973 and founded 3Com Corporation (now part of HP) in 1979.

Bob was also CEO of IDG’s InfoWorld Publishing Company (1992-1995). For eight years, he wrote an Internet column read weekly by 629,000 information technologists. He also wrote for The American Spectator, Forbes, Technology Review, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and Wired.

For nearly a decade, Bob was a venture capitalist at Polaris Partners, where he invested in early-stage technology companies.


  • In 1980, Bob received the Hopper Award from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
  • In 1988, he received the Bell Medal from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
  • In 1995, Bob was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
  • In 1996, he received the IEEE’s Medal of Honor.
  • In 1997, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering, and in 1999, to the International Engineering Consortium.
  • In 2003, Bob received the Marconi Prize and was inducted into the prestigious Bay Shore High School Hall of Fame.
  • In a 2005 ceremony at the White House, Bob received the National Medal of Technology for his leadership in the invention, standardization, and commercialization of Ethernet.
  • Bob entered the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2007.

Professor Yasheng Huang

Yasheng Huang is the International Program Professor in Chinese Economy and Business and a Professor of Global Economics and Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. He is also an Associate Dean at MIT Sloan School of Management.

Professor Huang founded and runs the China Lab and the India Lab, which aim to help entrepreneurs in those countries improve their management skills. He is an expert source on international business, political economy, and international management. Prior to MIT Sloan, he held faculty positions at the University of Michigan and at Harvard Business School. Huang also served as a consultant to the World Bank.

His research has been profiled in many publications, including The Wall Street Journal,The Economist, Businessworld, Le Monde, the Economic Times, as well as in numerous Chinese publications. He also has contributed to the Financial Times, The New York Times, and Foreign Policy.

In addition to academic journal articles, Professor Huang has published Inflation and Investment Controls in China (1996), FDI in China (1998), Selling China (2003, Chinese edition, 2005), Financial Reform in China (2005, co-edited with Tony Saich and Edward Steinfeld), and Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics (2008, Chinese edition, 2010)Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics is a detailed narrative account of history of economic reforms in China. It is based on detailed archival and quantitative evidence spanning three decades of reforms and was selected by the Economist magazine as one of the best books published in 2008.

Professor Huang holds a BA in government from Harvard College and a PhD in government from Harvard University.


Reidar Langmo

Reidar Langmo has more than a decade of clean energy expertise. He was one of the founders of both ScanWafer (1994) and REC (2000), which became one of the world’s leading solar companies.

Reidar held positions as chairman and CEO both in REC and its subsidiaries. He played a key role in connection with REC’s strategic acquisitions of ASiMI’s silicon plants both in 2002 and 2005. In 2006, REC had the most successful clean energy IPO to date with an $8B market cap.

Reidar holds an MSc from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology


Bruce Sohn

Bruce Sohn is passionately committed to growing US manufacturing and reducing the adverse effects of energy on our global environment. He is currently a Principal at MEGE Associates where he is focused on addressing the unique needs of building manufacturing businesses in the greentech, electronics and energy products industries.

He was previously President of First Solar and served on the Company’s Board of Directors during the formative and growth years. During his tenure, annual corporate revenue grew to >$3.5B and the company became the largest photovoltaic module manufacturer and builder of utility scale solar power plants in the world.

Bruce had been at Intel Corporation for 24 years. He played a leadership role in developing and manufacturing leading-edge semiconductor technology and was a primary developer of Copy Exactly! He served as an integral part of the start-up team at five Fabs, was program manager for Intel’s conversion to 300mm wafers and managed Intel’s two largest, multi-billion dollar Fabs.

Bruce is an engineering graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a certified Jonah and has been a guest lecturer at several universities including MIT, Stanford and Harvard. Tohoku University honored him with the designation of sensei for his semiconductor industry leadership.

Bruce chaired the US Commerce Department’s Manufacturing Council for the President of the USA and was a Clean Energy Ambassador to the WWF. He is a member of the National Association of Corporate Directors and a Senior Member of IEEE.


Amir Nashat

Amir Nashat is a Managing Partner in the Boston office of Polaris Ventures, which he joined in 2002.

Amir serves on the Partners Innovation Fund and is a Catalyst of the Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation at MIT. He previously served on the Board of the New England Venture Capital Association. He has been named to the Forbes Midas list of Top 100 Venture Capitalists and is also on the Innovation Advisory Board of Partners Healthcare.

Amir is a board member of the following Polaris portfolio companies: AgBiome, aTyr Pharma, BIND Therapeutics, (NASDAQ: BIND), Fate Therapeutics (NASDAQ: FATE), Promedior Pharmaceuticals, Scholar Rock, Selecta Biosciences and Sun Catalytix. Additionally, Amir has served as a Director of Adnexus Therapeutics (acquired by Bristol Myers Squibb), Athenix (acquired by Bayer), Avila Therapeutics (acquired by Celgene), Living Proof, Pervasis Therapeutics (acquired by Shire Pharmaceuticals) and served as a Board Observer of GI Dynamics (GID.AX). In addition to his role as an investor, Amir has also served as the initial CEO of Living Proof (known as Andora at the time) and Sun Catalytix.

Amir completed his Ph.D. as a Hertz Fellow in Chemical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a minor in Biology under the guidance of Dr. Robert Langer. Amir also earned both his M.S. and B.S. in Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley.


Frank van Mierlo

Frank van Mierlo is the CEO of 1366 Technologies, a solar technology company he started together with a team of engineers from RPI and MIT in 2008. The goal of 1366 Technologies is to make silicon based solar competitive with coal generated electricity.

Van Mierlo’s previous venture was Bluefin Robotics Corp., a company that enjoyed double digit growth and was always profitable under his leadership. Bluefin became the leading robotics company in its field and is known for its technical competence and a customer-centric approach. The company maintained a strong balance sheet, a healthy cash flow and a team of highly qualified engineers. In May 2005 the company was sold to Battelle.

He holds engineering degrees from MIT and Stanford and a business degree from Insead.